interesting relation to the question of responsible agency. GCI covers wounded combatants in an international armed conflict. As stated in Article 1, the purpose of the protocol is to "establish a system of regular visits undertaken by independent international and national bodies to places where people are deprived of their liberty, in order to prevent torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading. " 4 Others including Robert Mueller, FBI Director since, have pointed out that despite former Bush Administration claims that waterboarding has "disrupted a number of attacks, maybe dozens of attacks they do not believe that evidence gained by the.S. Morals And Religion: Page 80: The Torture by Schaff, Philip (1819-1893) Hutchinson's Encyclopaedia: Torture Archived 7 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. The classic analysis of the issues goes back to Aristotle in the Nicomachean Ethics, where he investigates the conditions that exculpate us from blame and the circumstances where blame is appropriate. The final part of this article briefly considered how each of these dimensions can be applied to groups, although it has left aside some difficult questions that arise for example, how a groups retrospective responsibilities can be fairly apportioned to individuals, or how collectives can. E.g., Israel, despite its Supreme Court outlawing torture in 1999, showed 43 supporting torture, but 48 opposing, India showed 37 supporting torture and only 23 opposing. Ad Consulta Vestra (as entitled in Latin) declared judicial torture to be a practice that was fundamentally contrary to divine law. Jonas, Hans (1984) The Imperative of Responsibility, University of Chicago Press, Chicago Argues that our new power to destroy nature creates a historically novel responsibility toward future generations. This topic is an old concern of philosophers, predating the term "responsibility" by at least two millennia.
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32 In England the trial by jury developed considerable freedom in evaluating evidence and condemning on circumstantial evidence, making torture to extort confessions unnecessary. "Refugee Women: The Authentic Heroines". It is suggested that any diagnostic criterion that characterizes the traumatic stressors leading to ptsd should be expressed in such a way that psychological forms of torture are included.", the sweeping definition of changes from 'any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether mental. Jaspers, Karl (1947) The Question of German Guilt, translated.B. The most obvious point, that all writers will endorse, is that legal and moral responsibility often overlap, but will diverge on some occasions. This article began by observing that the word responsibility is surprisingly modern, and that two quite different philosophical stories have been told about. A separate article, collective moral responsibility, discusses the issues that arise here.