psychology depend on evolutionary predictions about the content of norms. The same cooperative of genes that built the caddis legs and eyes also built the house. Example 1: Sam Bowles has used multi-level selection (MLS) to examine how social norms that level fitness differences within groups can create the conditions for the spread of altruism via inter-group competition. Mathew,., Boyd,. The process of purifying virtue can be compared to growing a flower garden on a plot of uncultivated land. Below, I will show that explicitly considering and modeling inter-group processes has done the same. As Dennett, Dawkins, and Tooby emphasize, natural selection is an astonishing theory because it explains how biological design can emerge from this mindless background. There is much to disagree with in Steven Pinker's essay. The Buddha declares that the amount of tears and blood we have shed what is a research essay in the course of our samsaric wandering is greater than the waters in the ocean; the bones we have left behind could form a heap higher than the Himalaya mountains.
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In contrast, those who prefer to represent things in terms of individual selection are perfectly happy to recognize the existence of functional phenotypes composed of traits distributed across multiple individuals. Within groups (2) how much fitness differences within groups have to be leveled by social norms, and (3) how much lethal inter-group violence has to (or had to) occur. Henrich,., Hunter-gatherer cooperation. Natural selection on large scale patterns of cultural variation is plausible because the cultural variation between neighboring groups that might compete is typically much larger than the genetic variation between the same groups (7). Ed Wilson's main attack is on kin selectionhe finds it insufficiently explanatory and research-constricting. Both the learners and the arahats have directly understood the essential import of the Buddha's teaching for themselves. In ethnographically known hunting and gathering societies, people who ignore social norms are shunned as mates; sexual selection based on conformity to norms would have been a very powerful force shaping the innate features of human social psychology. I reject such reasoning because languages are group traits. First, while evolution by natural selection definitively and demonstrably works under conditions of utterly random (non-directed) variation, non-random variation does not prevent the algorithmic process of natural selection from grinding out its well-tested innovations, or render it superfluous, as Pinker suggests. The Buddhist tradition recognizes three distinct ways of observing the precepts. This may be the phenotypic effect of interest, that is to say the one that sorts successful replicators from unsuccessful ones. These aspects are called, respectively, varitta (avoidance) and caritta (positive performance).
myblueheaven_ well, considering how bad you are at english, i guess the arts/ essay based paper was a bit of a lost cause really.
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THE false allure OF group selection.
Human beings live in groups, are affected by the fortunes of their groups, and sometimes make sacrifices that benefit their groups.